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Open Access Research article

Cd(II) and Pb(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

Juliana Ivanova1, Ivayla N Pantcheva2, Mariana Mitewa2, Svetlana Simova3*, Makoto Tanabe4 and Kohtaro Osakada4

Author Affiliations

1 Faculty of Medicine, Sofia University, 1, Kozyak str., 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria

2 Laboratory of Biocoordination and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Sofia University, 1, J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria

3 Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str., build. 9, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

4 Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, 226-8503 Yokohama, Japan

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Chemistry Central Journal 2011, 5:52  doi:10.1186/1752-153X-5-52

Published: 9 September 2011

Abstract

Background

The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II) ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II)-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II) and lead(II).

Results

New metal(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa) undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II) ions to form [Cd(Sal)2(H2O)2] (1) and [Pb(Sal)(NO3)] (2), respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II) ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II) center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II) cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation.

Conclusion

The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II) complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock farming.

Graphical abstract