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Correction: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study

Theresa Hague1, Andrea Petroczi1, Paul LR Andrews2, James Barker3 and Declan P Naughton1*

Author Affiliations

1 School of Life Sciences, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK

2 Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St George's University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK

3 School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, London KT1 2EE, UK

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Chemistry Central Journal 2010, 4:2  doi:10.1186/1752-153X-4-2


The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://journal.chemistrycentral.com/content/4/1/2


Received:15 January 2010
Accepted:1 February 2010
Published:1 February 2010

© 2010 Hague et al

Abstract

This is a correction to the following paper: Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J 2008, 2:13.

Correction

During preparation of a subsequent paper, we observed a computational error in the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) listed in this work which have been inadvertently overestimated [1]. The overall results and conclusion of our paper with the corrected figures have remained valid. Corrections for Figures three, four and five; and Additional file three are given below in tabular form. The correct values with EFr = 365 days, EDtot-male = 63.9 years and EDtot-female = 66.7 years; BWmale = 83.11 kg, BWfemale = 69.81 kg, AT = 6 years and 30 years (non-carcinogenic) are shown in Tables 3 and 4. In keeping with the conclusion published, THQ values of apple juice and stout have remained below 1 (Tables 1 and 2), whereas the combined THQ values for red wine (both intact and ultrafiltered) have exceeded the cutoff value of 1, mainly owing to high V values (Tables 3 and 4). Although in keeping with the literature, THQ values were calculated for AT = 30 years, given the effect metals are assumed to have on health and delayed onset, AT is likely to be below 30 years.

Table 1. Corrected THQ values for apple juice and stout (AT = 6 years)

Table 2. Corrected THQ values for apple juice and stout (AT = 30 years)

Table 3. Corrected THQ values for intact and ultrafiltered red wine (AT = 6 years)

Table 4. Corrected THQ values for intact and ultrafiltered red wine (AT = 30 years)

As noted in the paper, the THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are mainly above the safe level of THQ ≤ 1, which premise holds for the wine with the adjusted THQ values. It must be emphasized that the THQ value is to be judged as either below or above 1, where any value above 1 is a cause for health concern. It is notable that i) choices in value input into averaging time (AT), ii) uncertainty factor regarding the oral reference dose (RfD) and iii) bioavailability can have significant effect on the THQ value. The THQ is designed to be a conservative estimate. However, further research is required in order to provide guidance on appropriate value choices.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study.

    Chem Central J 2008, 2:13. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL